Art Nouveau and Organic Modern

Today we're gonna be talking about three styles Art Nouveau which is from 1890 to 1910 and was mainly in Europe and in the United States this then led into the arts and crafts movement and is also known as the craftsman style 1905 - 1929. And the craftsmen style led into the organic modern style which we also consider the frank Lloyd Wright style and was from 1908 and basically still continues today. So first let's talk about Art Nouveau.

Art Nouveau: 1890-1910 (mainly in Europe and the US)
Craftsman / Art and Crafts: 1905-1929
Organic Modern / Frank Lloyd Wright Stile: 1908-present
Art Nouveau is a decorative and architectural style that flourished primarily in Europe and the US. It means new art in French. Was the leader in breaking from historical art and architecture it is considered a very important transition from the historical Neoclassical period into the modern style.

Revival versus  Art Nouveau

The style developed as part of the rebellion against the Industrial age and its mass production of design products. There was a conscious effort to break from the mold, to borrow nothing from the past. Art Nouveau first developed in France and later was greatly influenced by the popular Arts and Crafts movement in England. Architects and designers emphasized simplicity and precision, but the function of the design came to seem more important.
After 1910, Art Nouveau appeared old fashioned and limited; it was only as a distinct decorative style. Not until fifty years later was it rediscovered. Best known architect from this time was Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Louis Sullivan, and Antonio Gaudi.

Antonio Gaudi, Louis Sullivan, Charles Mackintosh
Art Nouveau artists and designers were influenced by nature’s foliage, colors, forms, and lines. Many of them shared the goals of returning to simplicity and implementing nature into design. All furniture and interior textiles were handmade. The idea of unity in design played an important role as the 20th century proceeded.
Art Nouveau style contributed to the Arts and Crafts movement as well as the Organic Modern style. Here we can see the use of the three main contributors Antonio Gaudi implementing the curved lines throughout his architecture and furniture design as well as creating almost a natural looking feel with castle, it almost looks like tree roots extending below the surface and on the right side we see Louis sullivan's architectural embellishments through his design details on the front facade of this architecture as well as his incorporation of linear in horizontal lines in his other structures and he's now starting to incorporate slightly exaggerated overhangs in his buildings and on the bottom we can see Charles Macintosh incorporation of very linear and perpendicular lines in his furniture and his architecture.

Art Nouveau motifs

Art Nouveau style is was expressed in warm afternoon hues and deep rich colors, also colors of sunset or fields of grass. Typical motifs that were characterized by this style were things with long, flowing lines and wavelike contours. Intricate designs were common Nature was the source of inspiration as seen in vines, ocean waves, and peacock tails, plants stems and tendrils, flowers, seed pods, waving grass, snakes.
The female form (slender and posed with long flowing hair). Women pictured as nymphs and appearing melancholy. Through women artists often personified ideas such as faith, trust, and progress. Many women were posed wearing Celtic dress.

Art Nouveau furniture

Even though this was historic dress in a modern style. Patterning of wood furniture appeared as cutouts, wood burnings, marquetry and stenciling. The furniture would be built out of mahogany, walnut and rosewood and lighter woods (like pear, teak, ash, maple, as well as metals, mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, horns and ivory were inlaid.
Art Nouveau furniture was well constructed and functional, but decoration was important. A curvilinear swing was seen in chair legs and backs. Mackintosh’s furniture emphasized perpendicularity.
Henry van de Velde’s furniture expressed his philosophy of representing nature and organic forms in abstract. Beds had headboards and footboards were sculptured or had marquetry panels usually depicting nature scenes or animals. Now moving on to the arts and crafts its movement also known as the craftsman style.

Craftsman and Art & Crfts
The arts and crafts movement was from 1905 to 1929 and was the rejection of the assembly line goods resulting from the 'More is Better"    Victorian philosophy.
 The craftsman style house, called a bungalow, was designed by brothers and architects Charles and Henry Greene, whose work was particularly influenced by the traditional Japanese home in form, material, and construction.

Craftsman and Art & Crfts

Gustav Stickley was another proponent of the movement, and his Mission-style furniture was a good fit with the structurally exposed, wood framed Craftsman interiors. Bungalow homes included details such as stained glass, or large glass panels set within mullioned frames to create geometric and linear facades. The industrial revolution had turned the craftsman to just a cog on a wheel of machinery.
The aim of the Arts and Crafts reformers was to reestablish harmony among architects, designers and craftsmen, and to bring handcraftsmanship to the production of well-designed, affordable everyday objects.
Through the influence of designer-philosopher William Morris and John Ruskin, four principles forged the movement. The four principles that force the movement were: design unity, joy in labor, individualism and regionalism. The geometric and linear design of Arts and Crafts furniture reflected the basic concept of unity.

Craftsman and Art & Crfts
The use of built-in furniture expressed the ideas of simplification and integration. This also gave the designer greater control over what the homeowner could incorporate and disturb their design. Here we can see some of the Missionstyle furniture designed by Gustav Stickley.
Arts and Crafts beds were primarily those designed by Gustav Stickley. Lines were straight and simple and finally let's talk about the Organic Modern style also known as the frank Lloyd Wright style.

Organic Modern / Frank Lloyd Wright Stile

The Organic Modern style dates from 1908 – present.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 – 1959) is considered the founder of this style. His is considered the longest career in architectural history. He was also an industrial designer and interior designer.
His style is known as organic architecture due to his natural forms and materials.

Frank Lloyd Wright vs Louis Sullivan

Frank Lloyd Wright was first influenced by Louis Sullivan. Louis Sullivan (1856 – 1924)
Sullivan and Dankmar Adler were the first to really use steel frame construction, and create high quality skyscrapers in Chicago. Relying on the Classical division of the façade into the base, giving it an intense decorative treatment.
The middle was used to emphasize either the verticality of the composition, as in the Wainwright building, or its horizontality, as in The Carson, Pirie, Scott Department store.
The top was where Sullivan’s ideas of organic ornament really triumphed. From its roots at the base, the vegetal ornamentation twined up the slender piers, blooming around the window of the cornice. As you saw in the previous slide (center picture).

Frank Lloyd Wright Inspirations

Wright was also heavily influenced by the art and architecture of Japan, which became a large portion of his philosophic foundation. He turned to nature to develop his unique style. He was influenced by the Aztec Indian culture of Mexico, intrigued with their stacked cliff homes and large temples. Wright was also inspired by the Arts and Crafts movement as he emphasized nature as his primary inspiration. He rebelled against excessive ornamentation, incorporated muted tones and was determined to use fine craftsmanship in his works. He felt that a home should seem to grow out of the landscape and that the landscape should be integrated into the interior as well. With this reasoning he created with the earth and landscape, not just over it, but integrating the site into his floorplan. A dominant feature was his strong sense of horizontal line, often seen in his early and successful “Prairie architecture”.

Prairie House
Wright did take advantage of new technology in reinforced concrete, glass, and modern building techniques. Although he did not alter the natural state of materials used to construct the buildings. Wright created a pattern of homes for modest-income families that he dubbed the Usonian communities. They were typically one story, modest dwellings without a garage or much storage. They were often L shaped to fit around a garden area and constructed with environmentally conscious materials. Usonian homes had flat roofs and large cantilevered overhangs for solar heating and natural cooling.

Usonian House
Natural lighting was brought in with clerestory windows and heating through radiant flooring. His trademark was a connection from the outside to the inside. Frank Lloyd Wright actually coined the term “carport” which is used to describe the overhang for a vehicle to park under. Wright incorporated his custom-designed furniture; which were generally simple and fluid.

Art Nouveau furniture
He insisted that furniture be consistent in design, construction and style as an extension of the buildings or homes being furnished. For this reason he designed all the furniture and upholstery for his buildings.
All of his furniture embodies the same idea of natural design as his houses. He loved stained and leaded glass. It fit his belief that ornament should either take architecture to a higher plane of expression or be left out. He felt his stained glass did this. He believed his glass took his design to a new level – becoming living architectural artistry with the changing light of day passing through to the interior.

Organic Modern and Frank Lloyd Wright Stile
Here you can see several examples of his style of furniture, matching with the existing interior. Wright stopped practicing from 1914-1936, and upon his return had to resettle with the likes of modernists such as Mies Van der Rohe. The most famous adaptation was his Fallingwater. This is the epitome of his “organic” architecture which he stresses integrating nature with architecture.
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